WORD FORMATION PRACTICE
UPDATE: KEY PRACTICE TEST 3 + PDF
In the real exam, you’ll cope with very challenging questions about word formation which you cannot simply add suffixes or prefixes you already know, or are taught at school (such as “-ABLE”, “-ISE”, “DIS-“, “UN-“, etc.) For example:
The village is set amongst the most _____ scenery. (BREATHE)
Clearly, we need to find an adjective to fill in the blank. Many students immediately think of BREATHLESS (which means “finding difficult to breathe”). However, the correct answer is BREATHTAKING (meaning “impressive”) about which just a very few students may know. Another example is:
They won the case because of the _____ of the defendant. (APPEAR)
Again, some students may choose DISAPPEARANCE and are sure about their answer. However, the correct one to fill out the blank is NON-APPEARANCE.
Sometimes, you have to deal with stranger forms of a word. Take this example into consideration:
There are a variety of different ways to make a watch _____, one of which is using “O” rings or rubber gaskets to seal the back of the case. (WATER)
They keyword given is very simple. Unfortunately, you don’t know any adjective formed from WATER. Some may come up with MOUTH-WATERING but it isn’t suitable in the context. The correct answer is WATER-RESISTANT or WATERPROOF. (There’s a little different in meaning between the two words, but generally we can choose both.)
Another kind of challenging question is using PHRASAL NOUNS (nouns that are formed from PHRASAL VERBS):
1. There has been a series of _____ in this area recently. Fortunately, it will be under control soon. (BREAK)
2. Jo was only 19 when he got his _____ as a DJ. (BREAK)
Key: 1. BREAK-INS 2. BREAKTHROUGH
This post provides you with such practice. I hope that it’ll be helpful for you in preparation for the coming exam to schools for the gifted.
- Cambridge/ Oxford/ Longman Advanced Learners’ Dictionary
- Cambridge/ Oxford/ Longman Phrasal Verbs Dictionary
- Cambridge Vocabulary In Use (Advanced)
- Oxford Word Skills (Advanced)
- Cambridge Phrasal Verbs In Use (Advanced)
(See Comments for Answer Key)
1. By pausing for a moment or two before speaking you will simply be _____ a nervous tendency to rush headlong into everything. (ACT)
2. You ought to smarten up and have a _____ before the interview. (HAIR)
3. Thousands of refugees are living in _____ camps. (SHIFT)
4. You’re a load of _____ fools, too frightened to stand up for what you believe in! (BELLY)
5. Police asked _____ if they had seen the accident. (PASS)
6. Many innocent _____ were killed in the crossfire. (STAND)
7. A crowd of curious _____ soon gathered to see what was happening. (LOOK)
8. (A) _____ charities have said that some computer games might make people respond violently to (B) _____, which might make things more complicated and result in injures. (BULLY)
9. There have been some mass _____ from one of Germany’s top security jails. (BREAK)
10. Besides critical and creative thinking, we need to be able to think and act faster, which will enable us to better thrive in an accelerating and _____ world. (TIME)
Although there is still fighting in Vietnam, and although the most pressing of his other problems are domestic, President Nixon’s first major act of policy is to announce a trip to Europe. This is not as (1) _____ (TIME) as it seems. In fact, it is a (2) _____ (FOOT) step from both his (3) _____ (POINT) and the nation’s.
By acting in the foreign policy field, where any President is virtually (4) _____ (POTENT), Nixon asserts his leadership of the whole nation. By turning first to Europe, he ends the (5) _____ (OCCUPY) with Vietnam Europeans have with reason resented. There are many neglected problems in the Atlantic community, and while his administration is not prepared with any great policy (6) _____ (INITIATE), a working visit of exploration like this one can give future decisions a sounder basis.
His first stop is Brussels, headquarters of NATO, which needs a new military strategy and stronger common political purpose. Putting Brussels first indicates any Nixon plans for nuclear talks with Russia will not be at the expense of the (7) _____ (ALLY). His visit to Berlin, which East Germany has been harassing again, will be a sign that the West is still determined to defend that (8) _____ (POST). His visit to De Gaulle may or may not lay (9) _____ (GROUND) for a Franco-American rapprochement. Nixon is unlikely to return from Europe with any big deals to announce. But the proposed conversations should improve the transatlantic atmosphere.
The trip is further evidence of Nixon’s grasp of his new office. Many of his most practiced critics, in the Congressional opposition and in the press, acknowledge that he has made an excellent start. He is moving with crispness and energy; some of the old (10) _____ (WARY) is there, but there are lively flashes of humour and imagination. We wish him a good trip and continued growth in his great office.
1. It is such _____ news that a man carries a woman across threshold 632 times in two days. (RECORD)
2. In _____ talk (that is, talk in which the participants do not have equal power, status, responsibility or control), we should apply the ‘one rule for one and one for another’ principle consistently. (SYMMETRY)
3. In “managing _____”, you should find ways to influence your seniors, and make your relationship with them constructive and useful in order to do your job more effectively and to get more satisfaction from it. (UP)
4. In order to reduce environmental impacts, it’s not only the responsibility of research labs to maintain producing (A) _____ products but also that of the government to have disincentive measures on (B) _____ ones. (FRIEND)
5. The study showed a significant _____ between the baby’s sleeping position and the risk of cot death. (RELATE)
6. Countries in West Africa are suitable for rubber cultivation because the presence of Mount Cameroon acts as a barrier for (A) _____ winds, resulting in the second highest (B) _____ in the world (1,000 cm). (RAIN)
7. Students should learn how to open-mindedly embrace diversity, even when they come across some people whose characteristic is so _____ that they have little friends. (PUT)
8. After the Second World War, there was indeed a/an _____ of developing nations that were able to think up political institutions with a view to achieving independence from their prior colonial and sustain mass engagement thereafter. (RISE)
9. The nurse gave him some _____ for smoking in the hospital. (TELL)
10. The _____ President is about to appoint a committee of five to take care of a serious political problem. (COME)
neurology – back – intellect – enunciate – reverse – dominate – tend – severe – thesis – process
Dyslexia, also referred to as “specific reading disability,” (1) _____ affects a person’s ability to read and write. Dyslexics have difficulty connecting visual symbols (i.e., letters) with their corresponding sounds. Many people who suffer from dyslexia also have trouble with (2) _____, organization, and short-term memory. Dyslexia is the most common learning disability in children. It is not related to (3) ____ ability, vision, or access to education. Approximately 5-10 percent of school-age children in North America suffer from the condition, with each case varying in (4) _____. Children are generally diagnosed with dyslexia during the elementary school years when they are learning how to read and spell.
Determining the definite cause of dyslexia is a difficult task since studies of the morphology of the brain are generally conducted in an autopsy. One (5) _____ suggests that dyslexic children suffer from “strabismus,” the (6) _____ of the eyes to focus on two different points. When reading, for example, one eye focuses on the beginning of the word and the other focuses on the end. This theory could explain why dyslexics have difficulty reading. Many dyslexic children read letters and words (7) _____, often mistaking a b for a d or reading was instead of saw. These (8) _____ are normal for children under the age of six, but indicate a problem if they persist beyond the early elementary grades. (9) _____ research points to tiny flaws in the dyslexic brain called ectopias and microgyria. These flaws alter the structure of the cortex, the area of the brain that is responsible for connecting visual and audio (10) _____. Genetic research, often in the form of twins studies, shows that dyslexia may be passed on in families.
1. Reactionware, the name given to some special vessels in which chemical reactions take place, could be safely used outside of lab because the whole reaction is _____. (CONTAIN)
2. The (A) _____ of a report or testimony becomes important when the judge tries to relate the information presented to the regulations, which means a (B) _____ report can give one side an advantage. (WORD)
3. French glaciologists used data from _____ instruments to investigate glacier changes in a mountain range straddling in the borders of China. (SPACE)
4. Professor Barry Marshall talked about his _____ when struggled to convince other medics that a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, not stress – causes stomach ulcers. He swallowed some of it, and his resulting discovery won him a Nobel Prize. (EXPERIENCE)
5. Gammaproteobacteria, an important class of bacteria that helps maintaining the immune system, influences the production of _____ proteins called cytokines. (FLAME)
6. Failing to catch his friends and falling over a stone, the boy, who was _____, threw away the _____ then burst into tears. (BLIND)
7. Every evening some quarrel would break out as if the spouse were looking for an opportunity to let off steam and unwind _____ nerves. (TENSE)
8. Some snakes are (A) _____ in the natural world but actually they aren’t (B) _____ predators, and are harmless to humans. (FRIGHT, FEAR)
9. _____ competition proper occurs only when the sale price of any quantity of commodity stands below the short-period supply price of that quantity. (THROAT)
10. An anonymous _____ is assessed as being insufficient for establishing a reasonable suspicion; it should be possible to use sit upon ‘indications of a terrorist crime.’ (TIP)
Astronomers have a reputation for bringing us (1) _____ (INSPIRE) discoveries: new planets, exploding stars, galaxies on the edge of the known Universe. But now they are on the trail of most (2) _____ (BOGGLE) finding of all: evidence for a whole new universe beyond your own.
For millennia, philosophers have insisted that everything we see is part of the (3) _____ (COMPASS) totality called the Universe. Since the discovery of cosmic expansion around a century ago, astronomers believed there must be a final (4) _____ (FRONT), an ultimate barrier beyond which objects were receding so fast their light would simply never reach us. According to the latest theories of the forces that rule the cosmos, what has been regarded as the Universe may in fact just be one of an infinite number making up something far grander: the true universe – or Multiverse.
The theories state that our Universe is just one of the “bubble universes” constantly budding off one another, and inflating after their own Big Bang. Each bubble universe could be radically different from our own with its own set of fundamental forces and types of sub-atomic particles. Even so, they may be able to affect our Universe, with (5) _____ (DETECTION) consequences. Theory predicts that if our Universe is stuck by one of its cosmic neighbor, the energy of the impact would leave a faint (6) _____ (RING) pattern in the Cosmic Microwave Background. The orbiting space (7) _____ (OBSERVE) Planck maps the intensity and (8) _____ (POLAR) of the CMB radiation left over from the Big Bang, looking for (9) _____ (TELL) signs of a collision between our Universe and others. Theorists speculate that different bubbles universes may be also connected by (10) _____ (CALL) “space-time wormholes”.
1. Some people wake up every morning with a sense of ease, quiet, and spaciousness in their mind, while others tend to feel anxious, fearful and _____ toward the day ahead. (PATHETIC)
2. Human brain, within which there are two main cell types, is the _____ networks of neurons that encode and process information. (CONNECTION)
3. There’s one of the best reasons to visit Bali: the cornucopia of _____ yoga and wellness centers, where rest and rejuvenation are virtually guaranteed, and transformation is inescapable. (NOTCH)
4. There was a time when scientists also backed occasional long shots, investigating some weird stuff on the _____ it would pay off. (CHANCE)
5. A five-day retreat starts at $600 and includes _____ accommodations, one to yoga classes a day, breakfast, and a one-hour massage. (OCCUPY)
6. A division of a restaurant chain with corporate headquarters has installed a/an _____ computerized system, which can be loaded with different software for various calculation approaches, greatly increasing the accuracy and speed of its order tasking process. (TOUCH)
7. As researchers recognize the scientific and commercial worth of studying these viruses, we predict they will not be regarded as _____ for very long. (KNOW)
8. The phone has been innovated with _____ software that monitors your gaze, lighting up the display when you look at the screen and dimming it when you look away. (TRACK)
9. Up to a point, people can improve their _____ skills with practice, though many scientists believe it’s not possible for the brain to carry out two or more processes simultaneously. (TASK)
10. LG’s new line of smarts TVs is available with a Smart Control system: the TV tracks the wand’s movements and duplicates them with a/an (A) _____ cursor, making navigating around the menus, apps and (B) _____ services quick and easy. (SCREEN, CATCH)
Another type of technology is being introduced. It’s called Microdrone and it’s a (1) _____ (TOY) remote-control craft that hovers above streets or crowds to film what’s going on beneath. This Microdrone has already been used to monitor rock festivals, but its supplier has also been in discussions to supply it to the Metropolitan Police, and SOCA, the Serious Organized Crime Agency. The drones are small enough to be (2) _____ (NOTICE) by people on the ground when they are flying at 350ft. They contain (3) _____ (RESOLUTE) video surveillance equipment and an infrared night vision capability, so even in darkness they give their operators a bird’s eye view of locations while remaining virtually (4) _____ (DETECTION). The worrying thing is, who will get access to this technology? Merseyside police are already employing two of the devices as part of a pilot scheme to watch football crowds and city parks looking for (5) _____ (SOCIETY) behaviour. It is not just about crime detection: West Midlands fire brigade is about to lease a drone, for example, to get a better view of fire and flood scenes and aid rescue attempts; the Environment Agency is considering their use for monitoring of illegal fly-tipping and oil spills.
seethe do resist impede torment immune fat hindrance discipline
For many people doing physical exercise may entail a painful torturing of the body. Unless we are forced to go in for a physical training, we are inclined to treat it as something of a lower priority than staying in front of the TV set, spending time in a pub sipping alcoholic beverages or consuming excessive quantities of (1) _____ confectionery in a cafe. What usually repels individuals from committing themselves to strenuous exercise is the fear of fatigue, discomfort or even the inhibitions of being (2) _____ by true fitness zealots.
However, getting fit is fully a matter of common sense. Different forms of exercise may be of great benefit to the human body increasing its strength, flexibility and endurance. When supported by a nutritious diet, much better performance of the heart and the lungs improves the blood circulation making an individual more resistant to stressful situations as well as more (3) _____ to infections and diseases.
In the first place, (4) _____ that is requisite for proceeding with such physical effort ought to be attained to ensure that the intention of becoming healthier and more vigorous isn’t suppressed by any trivial (5) _____.